10 most common languages ​​(and how they are used)

10 most common languages ​​(and how they are used)


Programming languages ​​have evolved in parallel with web development techniques. Some are complementary, but all serve different purposes.

> Download this guide and learn the basics of HTML and CSS ” align=”middle”/>If you are just starting out, you are probably wondering which language to start with. Likewise, if you have a project to develop a static, dynamic website, a mobile application or even an artificial intelligence-based system, knowing the most common programming languages ​​can be useful to you.

This article categorizes the most common computer languages ​​according to their usage. You can access the section of your choice:

Programming languages ​​for a static website

The creation of a static website uses basic programming languages. HTML and CSS are the most common. JavaScript is increasingly used to complement the programming work around the structure of the website. These 3 languages ​​are specific to the development of graphical interfaces, also called frontend development.

HTML and CSS

These are 2 complementary languages. They represent the basics of web development. For his part, HTML’s role is to structure the web page. It makes it possible to constitute its skeleton. It is on this basis that can be integrated graphic and visual elements from CSS language, then position them relative to each other.

Advantages

  • HTML has the advantage of being universal, and independent of any operating system.
  • It works on the basis of a distributed structure, that is, the external links fit perfectly into it. This makes it possible to modify an element without modifying the page where it is located.
  • Finally, HTML makes it possible to integrate both local and remote elements, via the connection to a server.

Disadvantages

  • As a universal and simplified language, HTML can be limited in terms of formatting a page.
  • If you want to store your data locally, it is also not totally suitable. What’s more, storage can quickly add up, depending on the number of pages on your website.
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Javascript

JavaScript is a so-called interpreted programming language. It has the particularity of activating on the client side. This means that when the user opens a web page, the browser activates the code in order to display the page.

JavaScript allowsembed scripts between HTML elements on the page, usually to add animation or visual effect. It is a useful language to improve the user experience, because it allows you to add interactivity without slowing down the page.

Advantages

The main advantage of JavaScript is its security. Indeed, if your browser can retrieve a script from an HTML page, there is however no risk that it will access your files.

Disadvantages

As a language interpreted by browsers, JavaScript can be interpreted in different ways, from one browser to another. Some browsers, which are too old, do not follow the evolutions of the language and may not be able to display scripts.

Programming languages ​​for a dynamic website

A so-called “dynamic” website is generally a site that manages data. This is then connected to a server, with which it communicates via a dedicated language. Just like for languages ​​called “clients”, there are many programming languages ​​called “servers”. This type of development is called backend.

PHP

PHP is a scripting language which, unlike JavaScript, is executed on the server side. It is closely linked to HTML, with PHP tags being integrated into the heart of HTML code. For the customer, it is also impossible to see if PHP was used.

The main role of PHP is to develop good communication between the web page and the server. In this sense, PHP guarantees the good stability of web pages.

Advantages

The main advantages of PHP are:

  • Its great flexibility,
  • Its compatibility with many databases,
  • Its compatibility with most operating systems.

Disadvantages

PHP can have the disadvantage of generating random URLs, which must be rewritten so as not to see your pages penalized by search engine robots.

Ruby

Ruby is a open source programming language relatively simple, flexible and easy to access, especially for beginners. It is said to be interpreted, object-oriented and multiparadigm and is increasingly used. It presents a different vision of development, according to the principle: everything is object.

Advantages

  • Ruby is probably the most object oriented language, in the sense that the communication between the different language elements is very flexible.
  • It is regularly updated in order to facilitate it and improve its performance.
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Disadvantages

  • If Ruby can be learned quickly enough by doing, it is a language whose syntax is very different from others.
  • Documentation and community support are more difficult to find than long established computer languages.

Programming languages ​​for a mobile application

As mobile users become more and more numerous, mobile applications must respond to ever more advanced functionalities to meet their expectations. If you are planning to develop a mobile application, the choice of programming language will depend on the operating systems on which you want the application to come to life.

Java

The Java language is suitable for development of a native mobile application on Android. It has extensive documentation, being shared by a large community of developers around the world.

Taking into account that Java is designed for Android, you will need a 100% Android environment to develop the application. However, it is getting easier and easier to run your app from an iOS or Windows operating system.

Even though Java is a generic language, we must distinguish:

  • JVM (Java Virtual Machine).
  • JDK (Java Development Kit).
  • JRE (Java Runtime Environment).

Indeed, it is important to make sure that all development teams are working on the same kit, especially when part of the development is outsourced, even if the majority of professionals live with the JDK.

Swift

Swift was created by Apple specifically to develop applications for iOS, but also for Mac. It is an open source language more and more used, on the way to overtaking traditional languages ​​for the development of applications for phones. Swift is based on the Objective-C language. Swift elements can be integrated directly into it.

Advantages

The advantage of Swift is that there is an increasingly dense documentation, fed by the developers who are interested in it. Apple also makes a number of resources available to professionals and students.

For now, the downside to Swift may be that it’s limited to Apple. This should not last long, since the language is expected to adapt to Linux as well. On the performance side, it seems that Swift still has room for improvement.

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C #, C or C ++

The C language in all its forms is one of the oldest programming languages. It was developed in the 1970s to program systems. Its evolutions C # and C ++ are extremely stable languages.

Advantages

  • These are languages ​​recommended for beginners who wish to learn programming, because they adapt to changes in new languages.
  • The C language has served as the basis for many other languages.

Disadvantages

The verification offered may be limited and C languages ​​sometimes need additional tools to detect.

Programming languages ​​for artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence is increasingly being integrated into the web and its uses. With it, many programming languages ​​develop.

Most used: Java and Python

Java and Python are the 2 most used codes in artificial intelligence programming.

Java

For its part, Python has many advantages: it is fast, light, easy to install, and compatible with most operating systems. On the other hand, it does not adapt to the development of artificial intelligence for mobile applications.

Python

While it can have the disadvantage of being slower, Java is easy to learn and use. In addition, it also adapts to all development platforms.

The new ones: Julia and Scala

If you are in the learning phase and want to take the opportunity to get a bit ahead of the languages ​​used, why not take an interest in Julia and Scala? These 2 programming languages ​​are very recent and have experienced significant growth in recent years.

Julia is a language close to Python from a syntax point of view. It is dynamic, easy to learn, stable and free at the same time. Its first version was launched in 2009. Julia was notably taken over by the Climate Modeling Alliance for the construction of their future climate model.

Scala, meanwhile, has been heavily influenced by Java and is intended to work with it. However, it provides more flexibility than the latter. It is a multi-paradigm language, integrating object and functional programming. Its first version dates from 2004.

To go further, check out this free introductory HTML and CSS guide for marketers.Introductory guide to HTML and CSS languages

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