Marketing (marketing): what is it?

Mercatique : dessin d'un marché sous l'empire romain


The company must adapt its production and marketing to the needs of its consumers. This is what led to the appearance of marketing (marketing). A bit of history to start…

Trade before marketing

Do you know that 5,000 years BC, exchanges were already taking place?

Eh yes ! The clay tablets found in Mesopotamia confirm them. Exchanges, at the time, were based on barter.

3,000 years BC: appearance of intermediaries in the exchange. Trade then becomes a regulated activity.

Under the Roman Empire, the development of the road network, sea routes and fairs allowed merchants and the people to meet.

Definition of marketing

Marketing is the set of techniques and actions by which a company develops the sale of its services and products.

Official recommendation to replace Anglicism marketing. Dictionary Le Robert.

Thanks to this approach, the company foresees, observes, stimulates, arouses or renews the needs of its consumers and continually adapts its production and its marketing according to these needs.

It is found at the heart of major issues in companies, associations, etc. This is what determines their success and their survival in constantly changing markets.

What are the stages of a marketing approach?

The marketing approach consists of analyzing consumer expectations to define the offer as well as the means of marketing.

To be effective, it must put the consumer at the center of the company’s thinking.

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A marketing approach revolves mainly around three inseparable and complementary axes.

  1. the study and knowledge of the market to adapt to it
  2. the implementation of the company’s sales policy
  3. and the operational dimension which implements actions in accordance with the defined policy

A marketing approach takes place in four different phases:

1. Study marketing

Its objective is to carry out an internal study and an external study (market study).

Internal analysis

Internal analysis consists of determining the strengths of the company as well as its weaknesses.

Thanks to this analysis, the company determines the resources available for its growth as well as the weak points to be overcome.

It will also be able to measure the effectiveness of the marketing strategy by implementing concrete actions.

External analysis

It consists of studying demand (consumer needs, tastes, etc.) and supply (producers, competition).

This study also takes into account the environment in which the company operates (economic, legal, socio-cultural, etc.).

Some techniques are particularly suitable for successful survey marketing.

We can cite :

  • analysis of the company’s portfolio (brands, services, products, etc.)
  • surveys, product testing, competitive intelligence, database exploitation, etc.
  • cost and return on investment analysis

2. Strategy marketing

Strategic marketing consists of implementing the company’s overall strategy.

For this, it is necessary to define the targets, the objectives as well as the means available to the company to achieve its objectives.

Strategy marketing uses several techniques, in particular to:

  • price fixing
  • Communication
  • simulation models and test markets
  • market positioning

3. Operational marketing

The first two phases contribute to developing a marketing strategy for the company.

Operational marketing consists of implementing the actions planned in the company’s strategy.

He uses the data collected in the field to adapt the company’s sales force to its customers and more generally to the market.

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Among the most used techniques, we have:

  • promotional offers
  • merchandising
  • team management (motivation, recruitment, training, monitoring, etc.)

4. Monitoring and control

The purpose of this phase is to ensure the proper conduct of operations and the achievement of company objectives.

The latter must set up a system for monitoring the marketing actions implemented. It must also ensure the control of these actions.

The analysis and comparison of the results obtained and the forecasts will then be used to detect the effective actions and those which are not.

This approach is useful in particular for detecting the points to be reinforced and those which are to be improved.

The components of a marketing policy

The marketing mix or marketing plan depends on 4 fundamental variables called the 4 Ps: Product, Price, Place (Distribution), Promotion.

1. Product Policy

The product strategy consists of defining the characteristics of the product or service in such a way that it stands out from the competition while remaining as competitive as possible.

The product presented must precisely meet market and consumer expectations.

2. Pricing policy

The price is one of the variables forming part of the operational choices of marketing.

This is also the central point of any marketing strategy. The objective here is to set the best price for the product or service to be sold.

For this, the company must take into account three factors:

  1. The cost of the product or service,
  2. internal and external factors such as the price charged by competitors,
  3. the value of the product or service to consumers.

3. Distribution policy

It brings together all the marketing actions and commercial actions intended to send the offer to customers.

We distinguish :

  • the direct circuit (from producer to consumer),
  • the short circuit (from the producer to a resale structure then to the customer),
  • and the long circuit admitting several intermediaries between the producer and the customer.
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4. Communications policy

In marketing, the communication policy combines sales promotion, direct marketing and advertising actions.

The challenge here is to formulate the right message and get it to the right target.

This therefore requires identifying the target, defining a style of communication and choosing the appropriate means of communication.

What to remember from marketing

The objective of marketing is to develop a clientele and retain them by providing them with products and services that meet their needs.

But to achieve this, the company must adopt an effective marketing approach.

It must analyze consumer expectations in order to adapt its product and service offerings to them. It must also put in place the means of marketing to send the right product to the right person.

What is the origin of marketing?

Mercatique (marketing) has always existed in the world.

However, the concept of modern marketing appeared in the 20th century, during the industrial crisis in the United States. It would have succeeded the era of sales (1930-1950).

Why implement a marketing strategy?

The purpose of marketing strategies is to adapt the company to the explicit and implicit requirements of the markets in which they operate.

This consists of identifying and targeting the real needs of consumers to conceptualize the services and products to be created.

What is the difference between marketing and marketing?

Marketing and marketing are two terms that mean the same thing.

Marketing is French; marketing: Anglo-Saxon!

So there is no difference between mercatique and marketing from the point of view of their applications.

What are marketing activities?

Marketing includes the main categories of marketing activities in an organization:

  • market analysis,
  • decision making,
  • and the operational implementation of these decisions.

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