What is Mesothelioma and the symptoms of Mesothelioma? and Diagnosis of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops in the inner lining of the lungs or abdomen. If developed in the lining of the lungs it is called pleural mesothelioma and if developed in the inner lining of the abdomen it is called peritoneal mesothelioma. It is a very rare kind of cancer and till now there is no known cure for this kind of cancer.

Different types of mesothelioma

There are two main ways to classify mesothelioma. The first way is the location where the cancer tumours are located and the second is by the cell morphology and its structure.

Different types by location of tumours

What is Mesothelioma and the symptoms of Mesothelioma? and Diagnosis of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma develops in the inner lining of different organs. Depending on that the mesothelioma can be categorized into three different types

  • Pleural mesothelioma
  • Peritoneal mesothelioma
  • Pericardial mesothelioma

Pleural mesothelioma

It develops in the inner lining of lungs and is caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers.

Peritoneal mesothelioma

It develops in the lining of the abdomen. It is caused when the asbestos fibers get trapped in the lining of the abdomen.

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Pericardial mesothelioma

When in the rarest of rare cases the asbestos fibres get trapped in the pericardium i.e. the lining around the heart cavity, pericardial mesothelioma is caused.

Mesothelioma by cell morphology or by the structure of cells

Mesothelioma can also be classified by its cell structure. Based on this there are following types of mesothelioma. The cell type is studied by a process called histology, a process that involves microscopic examination of the tissue extracted by biopsy of the tumour.

  • Epithelioid Mesothelioma
  • Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma
  • Biphasic Mesothelioma
  • Other cell types

Epithelioid Mesothelioma

This is the most common type of mesothelioma according to the cell structure. The cell structure is elongated and all the cells are of similar shape and size.

Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma is not so common and is mostly resistant to all the different types of treatments of mesothelioma.

Biphasic Mesothelioma

This type of mesothelioma cells show the structure and morphology of both Epithelioid and Sarcomatoid mesothelioma and exhibit characteristics of both of them.

Other cell types

This type of mesothelioma includes the types where variation in the cell morphology of both Epithelioid and Sarcomatoid mesothelioma exist. For example, desmoplastic type that is a variation of Sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells and deciduous type that is a variation of epithelioid mesothelioma cells.

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Symptoms of Mesothelioma

The symptoms of Mesothelioma are very common and also look like symptoms of other diseases. These symptoms include

  • Trouble breathing or chest pain
  • Effusion (fluid buildup) in the lungs or the abdomen cavity
  • Anemia especially in women
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weight loss

As a result of such common symptoms doctors often face difficulty diagnosing this disease.

Stages of Mesothelioma

What is Mesothelioma and the symptoms of Mesothelioma? and Diagnosis of Mesothelioma
Source: https://www.mesothelioma.com/mesothelioma/pictures/

Depending on the spreading of the tumors and other factors the oncologists have divided mesothelioma into four stages

Stage 1

The tumor has not spread and is located at the area of its origin

Stage 2

The tumor has spread from its area of origin, but, has spread to nearby area and lymph nodes.

Stage 3

The tumor has spread to various nearby areas and to the lymph nodes

Stage 4

At this stage, the tumour has spread to multiple areas and through the lymphatic system has spread to other important organs of the body.

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