Peters’ anomaly is an eye disorder that causes the cornea and iris of the eye to become thin and cloudy, causing blurred vision. It is a considered rare disease, which means that his indigestion is very low. This condition belongs to a group of disorders known as congenital corneal opacities, which affect 3 to 6 people per 100,000.
The cause of Peters’ anomaly is unknown, although scientists believe that it develops from a combination of genetics and exposure to certain environmental factors. It can appear as a single condition, or associated with other eye problems such as increased pressure inside the eye (glaucoma), or clouding of the lens (cataracts). Due to the lack of visual stimulation, some people develop “lazy eye” (amblyopia).
Nearly half of the people affected by Peters’ anomaly have low vision early in life, and about a quarter are legally blind.
In most cases, Peters’ anomaly is bilateral, which means that it affects both eyes, although the level of visual impairment may be different in each eye. These individuals may have eyes that do not point in the same direction (strabismus). In some people with Peters’ anomaly, the clouding of the cornea improves over time and leads to better vision.
There are two types of Peters anomalies, distinguished by their signs and symptoms. Type I Peters anomaly is characterized by incomplete separation of the cornea and iris and mild to moderate corneal opacity. Type II is characterized by incomplete separation of the cornea and lens and severe corneal opacity that can affect the entire cornea.
In more than 90% of cases, Peters’ anomaly is sporadic, meaning it occurs in people with no apparent family history of the disorder. In many of these sporadic cases the genetic cause of the condition is unknown. However, some of these cases are caused by a mutation in a gene that occurs during the third trimester of pregnancy, or by inheriting a mutation from unaffected parents. In rare cases, the condition (or related eye disorders) have been reported to occur in multiple members of the same family.
Studies have reported a coincidence between the mutation that causes Peters’ anomaly and fetal alcohol syndrome, which occurs when a fetus is exposed to alcohol by the mother’s consumption during pregnancy.
In general, the presence of this vision problem is detected when the child goes to the pediatrician and says that he does not see “clearly”. A genetic test can determine if the genetic mutation that causes this abnormality is present. This disorder is usually approached in an interdisciplinary way, that is, vision specialists and also neurologists are involved, since visual difficulty can lead to neurological problems.
Treatment for Peters’ anomaly depends on the visual problems the patient has. It may include treatment for glaucoma, or surgery to correct cataracts or other lens abnormalities. A corneal transplant is also an option, depending on the severity of the abnormality, although it is complex if it is a child.